Setting – Authors’ perspectives and techniques

This is the last post dealing with setting – one of the seven elements of historical fiction. Over the years, authors have shared thoughts on transporting readers in time and place. I’ve pulled together a number of their perspectives in today’s post.

Katharine McMahon offers an introductory comment: research underpins the vividness of the story telling, but an emotional connection to the past is critical to successfully write historical fiction. The reader and I both know that I’m going to interweave the two – fact and fiction – as seamlessly as I would if I were writing a contemporary novel.

As does Judith Starkston: Developing an immersive world is hard work that has to feel seamless to the reader. And isn’t that one of the most profound transformations for fiction to accomplish—to place ourselves into another way of seeing the world and to try on how it feels to be another person?

Let’s hear from other authors ~~

Research: Jane Johnson’s approach to research: I need to immerse myself in the research – each novel usually requires a year of research – before I write the book. It’s partly a matter of confidence – knowing what I’m talking about! – partly the need to feed the compost heap from which the story emerges. All those facts, all that information needs to be piled up and then to mulch down to a rich material that will allow the story to grow straight and true (or twisted and strange!) but with its own integrity and power. I don’t want to have to fact-check three times in every sentence, or even every page: it breaks up the flow. I always go back to primary sources first, since I’ve learned only too well that even academics wing it sometimes and I’ve caught a number of so-called experts out in fudges and errors. I want the work to be accurate and to reflect as truthfully as possible the times I’m trying to portray. The story and characters are of course paramount, but if you’re going to write fiction which purports to be ‘historical’ I think you owe it to the period and to the readers to get it as right as anyone can. I want to offer readers verisimilitude and good value: and I don’t want anyone to suddenly stop and say ‘hang on, I don’t think that’s right’ – that’s the easiest way to lose the trust between an author and a reader. https://wp.me/p29Qar-hC

Perspective: R.N. Morris — I think you have to convince people that you have actually been there, into the past in a time machine, and that you’re writing from direct observation. That’s not the same as showing that you’ve done the research. You have to do the research, of course, but you have to process it and write it as though it’s from first hand observation. https://wp.me/p29Qar-kG

Technique: Blythe Gifford — As I get into the story, I’m always searching for the sensory details that will allow me to walk around in that world and experience it.  I have a map and a calendar at hand to keep me grounded, and in some ways, I find images better research than words.  But the physical sensations, scent, touch, sounds, really put me in touch with my characters.  The “everydayness” of real historical life is, of course, the most difficult thing to pin down, particularly before literacy was wide-spread.  https://wp.me/p29Qar-lK

Technique: Anne Easter Smith — if your historical characters are real people, you must know where they were and when and what occurred at these points in time; Anne Easter Smith offers her approach: First of all I get down on the floor with a big flip chart and make a graph with my main characters along the top and a monthly/yearly timeline down the side. Then I go to my favorite–and trusted–books on the period, turning to the index and finding my character (or her leading man, because as we know history is about men and written mostly by men!) I systematically go through every entry marking on my chart where she (or he) was at any specific time and what they were doing there. Once I have a goodly number of entries and have finished Part One of the book, I write down a list of all the places I have not been to and begin to plan The Research Trip. I need to walk the walk and see what my characters would have seen. Once I’m home again with a bag full of photos, brochures, maps and notes then I feel ready to start writing. https://wp.me/p29Qar-m9

Technique: Helen Bryan — Research is the easy part. In the main, this consists of burying myself in the British Library, to read about whatever period I plan to write about, and making notes by hand. While I can’t imagine writing on anything but a word processor, handwriting research notes tends to fix information in my brain, and significantly, at this stage the landscape of the novel starts to take shape.

Another good thing about research is that it’s possible to do it almost indefinitely without actually writing anything, while looking impressively busy. However, research isn’t limited to books. Useful information for a writer can crop up anytime, anywhere – newspaper stories, a snatch of conversation overheard in the street, a color, the weather, a landscape, any small detail that will pull a reader into the story. In particular, I am always on red alert for names. Characters must have exactly the right name, and only then do they begin to be real for me.  That’s when I begin writing, fitting them into that landscape. https://wp.me/p29Qar-mf

Technique: Indu Sundaresan — For The Twentieth Wife (and a few other novels following) my notes are in big binders, categorized as ‘food,’ ‘clothing,’ ‘transportation,’ maybe ‘roles of women,’ ‘court etiquette.’  This all forms a practical binder—what I absolutely need to know. For each novel, I also have a timeline binder.  I begin from the first recorded mention of my character(s) and continue through until their death, in between I jot down everything I’ve read about them—wars, battles, who they loved, whom they hated and why (or possibly why) and who mentions them and why. https://wp.me/p29Qar-yj

Technique: Jessica Brockmole — General history books are excellent starting points. They can help us plan our novels from the onset, letting us wade through much history in order to zero in on the few essential tidbits. They can also point us in the direction of other resources. I always follow footnotes to the end bibliography in search of more to read, especially published primary sources. I’ve come across some gems that I may not have found on my own. In researching WWI and WWII, I read collections of letters between soldiers and sweethearts, war diaries, and memoirs.

Research: Marina Oliver — find books on “historical slang, synonyms and foreign phrases … dictionaries of quotations, books of names, books on furniture, costume and houses, second-hand copies of Who’s Who and Whitaker’s Almanack, hotel and tourist guides and maps”. Oliver says there are different levels of research. First there is the general background … then you will need more specific information, relating more closely to the location and the time, and finally tiny details to illustrate something in the story, to back up some action or make a plot development possible.

Technique: Delaney Green – Readers want to be transported.  Humans know where they are by taking in information through their five senses. Therefore, I try to see, hear, touch, taste, and smell past places by finding out what there was to see, hear, touch, taste, and smell. https://wp.me/p29Qar-QM

Technique: Margaret Evans Porter: I rely on portraits of people and places as they were at the time the novels take place. I study maps, floor plans of building. I hunt for objects used by or connected with my real-life characters. I study types of clothing worn, and because I worked in the theatre for many years, I have the advantage of having performed in the costumes of every era I’ve written about—so far. I read recipe books, dictionaries, conduct books published at that time. I listen to music that might have been familiar to my characters, read the poets and authors they would’ve read, and study the plays they attended.

Technique: Leah Klocek: offers several suggestions she uses for research.

Eyewitness to History is exactly what it sounds like. A rather plain and ad-filled website hides a valuable collection of excerpts from first-hand accounts from all throughout history. It’ll give you some great ideas and at least one cited source per page for you to follow.

Best of History Websites is definitely strongly tilted towards teachers, but it’s still quite helpful to the rest of us. It’s an index of websites organized by time and place in history. Each website listed within the larger index includes a description of what it holds and a review of the website for usability and accuracy – and there are some amazing websites in there. It also has a section specifically aimed at researchers containing advice and tools to assist both beginners and experts.

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project contains collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts. Here you will find an index of a wide variety of primary source documents from just about everywhere and everywhen. The page is old and not often updated, but don’t let this stop you.

And finally, The Avalon Project is a digital library of historical documents related to law and diplomacy dating back to the beginning of written history. It’s a veritable cornucopia of documents ranging from Roman Republican agrarian laws to the 9/11 Commission Report. As many, if not most, historical plots intersect with conflict, law, or diplomacy, bookmarking The Avalon Project will not be a decision you regret.

Technique: Elizabeth St John. — What was most fascinating to me were the footnotes, for from there emerged the original source documents. That was my second research methodology – going deep into the contemporary documents of the times. Subscribing to British History Online and the National Archives opened up the world of digitalized manuscripts; and Google Books unlocked the Calendars of State Papers. Now I was humming! The hunt was on for every single character that would be making an appearance in my book, and the riches provided by these online sources were boundless. I quickly realized the need to have a pretty accessible filing system to be able to store and retrieve all the documents that were emerging – letters, pleadings, court appearances, dispatches. Some were written by my characters; others mentioned them in passing. Each provided a clue to the personality and motivation of the people of my book.

Perspective: Geoff Micks — Any writer in any genre needs to know the rules of their world well enough to know which rules can be broken, bent, or ignored. Writers of historical fiction need to go even further, because it is their responsibility to train their readers from the very first page about how that world works differently from the one we live in today. By the time the characters and conflicts are made manifest, readers need to be able to imagine what is happening for themselves without heavy-handed spoon feeding of exposition, explanation, and context. That kind of fluency and familiarity only comes from a deep understanding of what you, the writer, are going to write about. For me,  https://wp.me/p29Qar-139

Perspective: Myfanwy Cook, author of Historical Fiction Writing – A Practical Guide and Toolkit, says that setting provides a stage on which the characters can act out their drama.

Setting is not just a colourful frame in which to showcase an author’s characters, but is in many ways an extra character … it deserves to have a detailed ‘character sketch’ of its own, which is as accurate and suitable for the subgenre of historical fiction as possible.”

I hope you’ve enjoyed this deep dive into setting. Now I have to decide which element to tackle next: character, plot, theme, dialogue, conflict, or world building.

Links to earlier posts on setting:

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M.K. Tod writes historical fiction. Her latest novel, TIME AND REGRET was published by Lake Union. Mary’s other novels, LIES TOLD IN SILENCE and UNRAVELLED are available from Amazon, NookKoboGoogle Play and iTunes. She can be contacted on Facebook, Twitter and Goodreads or on her website www.mktod.com.

How I Write Historical Fiction by Geoff Micks

beginning-geoff-micksGeoff Micks is a fellow Toronto author whom I met online a while ago. He’s already written three novels, the last one being itself the first of planned trilogy with an intriguing premise (see below). I think you’ll find Geoff’s thoughts on writing historical fiction very interesting.

How I Write Historical Fiction by Geoff Micks

I would like to begin by thanking Mary Tod for inviting me to guest blog for her. This is a real treat for me. Mary asked me to write a few hundred words about writing historical fiction. I suspect she could ask a hundred authors the same question and receive a hundred different answers for her trouble, so I will stick to my own approach and let others have their say in turn.

I think of historical fiction as roughly analogous to the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine. How much fiction do you want in your history? What is the optimal balance between what really happened and what you say happened to power your story?

When I read historical fiction, I want to be entertained first and educated second, but I also expect that everything I read should be as true as possible. I understand writers sometimes need to fudge the little things to make the big things work, but I would argue discarding an inconvenient truth for an easy falsehood is both lazy writing and disrespectful of one’s readers. When I finish a work of historical fiction, I want to be able to talk about what I learned without being wrong. It is the author’s responsibility to inform me of what really happened while also showing me a good time along the way.

How should a writer achieve that?

I believe one of the things that divides historical fiction from all other genres of fiction is that the writer must become fluent in a time period and a culture before thinking at all about the story that will take place within the confines of that world. The writer must research that era and the people who occupied it until it is as comfortable and familiar as the present day. My rule of thumb is I should be able to have an in-depth conversation with an academic subject matter expert before I even consider hammering out rough ideas for characters and plot. I need to understand the history and the culture and the context down to the marrow before I can create something false that will fit in that place so comfortably you will believe it is all true.

Let me give you an example of why this is so important to a writer.

When writing about parents having an argument over breakfast set in the present day, it can be conjured up in just a moment: Mom and Dad are rushing back and forth between the breakfast table and the counter, chomping on toast, coffee cups in hand, harried and frazzled with no time to sit down. They hiss at each other in low voices so as not to upset the children. Meanwhile, the children are pushing the last of their cereal around the bottoms of their bowls, pretending not to hear their parents’ harsh words. We all know what that scene looks like so a writer can trust the reader to fill in the blanks and paint the scene in their minds’ eye with as much detail as they need.

Now imagine that argument is happening over breakfast in Serbia in the 9th Century AD.

You can’t, can you?

Oh, you can guess, but a guess from a writer is a lie to the reader. Guess with me: Does a 9th Century Serbian family even eat a meal all together first thing in the morning, or are they segregated by age or by gender? What room are they eating in? Does their home have more than one room? Is there a table? What are people sitting on, or are they sitting at all? What are they eating and how are they eating it?

The fact that we do not know the answer to any of those questions off the tops of our heads means we would be crazy to write a book set in 9th Century Serbia. If we cannot manage to talk about even a simple breakfast in a convincing manner, what chance do we have of building a believable story in that world?

Any writer in any genre needs to know the rules of their world well enough to know which rules can be broken, bent, or ignored. Writers of historical fiction need to go even further, because it is their responsibility to train their readers from the very first page about how that world works differently from the one we live in today. By the time the characters and conflicts are made manifest, readers need to be able to imagine what is happening for themselves without heavy-handed spoon feeding of exposition, explanation, and context. That kind of fluency and familiarity only comes from a deep understanding of what you, the writer, are going to write about.

Only once you have the facts straight can you introduce the fiction to it: “I know I want these important events to be part of my story, and I want my characters to witness them. Who are my characters that I can get them everywhere I need them to be? What do they do for a living? How do they fit in this society? How do they know each other? What do they want out of life? How am I going to keep them from getting that, or at least make them struggle for it? What is the conflict driving this story? Is the overarching historical narrative the conflict driving this story, or is it a personal conflict in a historical setting, or are there multiple conflicts? How do I want the reader to feel about this world and its people at the beginning of the story and at its end? How do I make my characters’ journey relatable to a reader in the modern era?”

Once I know the world, I can start asking those questions. That’s how I write historical fiction.

Geoff Micks is the Toronto-based author of three novels: Inca, about the decline and fall of the Inca Empire told from the perspective of a high-ranking Inca bureaucrat responsible for keeping the State running; Zulu, the story of two brothers who grow up in an Iron Age kingdom with a cattle-based economy that somehow held off the Victorian-era British Empire for six months, and Beginning, the first book in a planned trilogy about a man who has been alive since the last Ice Age dictating his memoirs into a tape recorder while waiting for a mysterious visitor who may finally be the death of him. Geoff is an alumnus of the University of Toronto and Centennial College where he studied Journalism, History, and Classical Studies. His Twitter handle is @faceintheblue.

Many thanks, Geoff! You’ve offered some excellent points on the writing of historical fiction. By the way, what DO they have for breakfast in 9th century Serbia?

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M.K. Tod writes historical fiction and blogs about all aspects of the genre at A Writer of History. Her latest novel, TIME AND REGRET was published by Lake Union on August 16, 2016. Mary’s other novels, LIES TOLD IN SILENCE and UNRAVELLED are available from Amazon, NookKoboGoogle Play and iTunes. She can be contacted on Facebook, Twitter and Goodreads or on her website www.mktod.com.